Artificial Intelligence is one of the fastest emerging technologies, finding applications in almost all sectors and industries, including transport, healthcare, manufacturing, and more. If this technology intrigues you, let’s dive into the working of Artificial Intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence: An overview

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of computer science that deals consist of the development and programming of smart machines capable of performing human-like tasks. Although artificial intelligence is a developing technology, advancements in machine learning and deep learning have made AI applicable and essential for almost every industry and sector.

Components of Artificial Intelligence

To understand the working of AI, it is essential to learn about the elements involved in it and the function they perform. Let’s briefly discuss the basic components of artificial intelligence.

#1. Machine learning

Machine learning (ML) enables computer systems to learn and improve from their experiences without being principally programmed. Machine learning involves the development of algorithms that are capable of analyzing data and making predictions accordingly. This application of artificial intelligence is widely used in mobile apps like Amazon, Netflix, and Uber. However, its applications are not limited to, enhancing user experience. ML is applied in healthcare and pharma industries for diagnosis, drug development, and image interpretation.

#2. Deep learning

Deep learning is a subdivision of machine learning that utilizes artificial neural networks. Artificial neural networks, similar to biological neural networks, learn and develop memory by processing data. In deep learning, several neural network layers work together and process data individually, which is then combined to process a single output. Some examples of deep learning include speech recognition and face identification from a patchwork of tiles.

#3. Artificial neural networks

As mentioned previously, artificial neural networks are a group of computer systems that imitate the function of neural networks in the human brain. Artificial neural networks are formed from a stack of perceptrons, the artificial equivalent of neurons in the human brain. Neural networks are based on making associations and learning by processing past data. For example, a machine can identify whether the image in question is of a dog or not by processing all the previous dog photos it has witnessed. After processing, the machine will produce an output, answering whether the image is of a dog or not.

#4. Cognitive computing

Cognitive computing is another component of artificial intelligence, which is used to improve and imitate the interaction between machines and humans. The purpose of cognitive computing is to mimic the human thought process in a computer system, like understanding different human languages & accents, and the meaning of images. Cognitive computing, combined with other aspects of artificial intelligence, is used to develop machines with information processing abilities and human behavior.

#5. Natural Language Processing

Natural Langauge Processing (NLP) enables computers to decipher, determine, and deliver human speech and language. The primary objective of using NLP is to allow smooth interaction between humans and machines, by training machines to interpret human language and yield a positive response. NLP is used in applications like Skype, which deciphers the speech of various languages and responds accordingly, establishing real-time communication.

#6. Computer vision

Computer vision involves deep learning and pattern identification to recognize the content in an image, i.e., pictures, graphs, and tables. This technology can be applied to word documents, PDF documents, images, and videos. Computer vision is one of the widely practiced components of AI, used extensively for visual data interpretation. Computer vision is applied in RnD and healthcare industries, for evaluating patients’ X-ray scans and diagnosing patients.

How is Artificial Intelligence applied?

Artificial intelligence can be divided into two broad categories:
● Narrow Artificial Intelligence
● Artificial General intelligence
Let’s briefly discuss these categories.

#1. Narrow Artificial Intelligence

Narrow AI, also known as Weak AI, is a type of artificial intelligence that functions in a limited framework and is often used to simulate human intelligence. Narrow AI machines are designed to perform a single task and work under specified constraints and limitations. Machine learning and deep learning are categorized under Narrow AI. Machine learning utilizes user data and uses statistical techniques to get progressively better at performing a specific task without being particularly programmed for it. Deep learning functions like a human brain and features a neural network architecture inspired by the neural network of the brain. Deep learning is a subset of deep learning, which helps a machine go deep into the learning process.
Some common examples of Narrow AI are:
● Self-driving cars
● E-commerce search recommendations
● Google search
● IBM’s Watson
● Personal assistants like Siri, Echo, and Alexa

#2. Artificial General Intelligence

Artificial general intelligence (AGI) is used to create machines possessing human-like intelligence, and can seamlessly perform all types of tasks in all kinds of environments. Although the idea of AGI looks fascinating, the AI industry is still far from achieving it. AGI is based on the creation of a universal algorithm that can learn and act in all types of environments, but experts believe this dream is still far from reality.

The working of Artificial Intelligence

In a nutshell, AI is defined as a branch of computer science that is used to simulate human intelligence in computer systems. The broad objective of artificial intelligence is to make machines as smart as humans, which has led to several theories and definitions. One of the generally accepted definitions of artificial intelligence is a technology that makes a machine intelligent. The working of artificial intelligence can be simply put into one line, “AI receives codes from the environment, and perform actions accordingly.”
The working of artificial intelligence can be defined into four aspects:
● Thinking Humanly
● Acting Humanly
● Thinking rationally
● Acting rationally

The ideas of “thinking” are associated with reasoning and processing, whereas the concepts of “acting” are associated with the behavior.

The bottom line

As discussed, artificial intelligence is a set of technologies that are utilized to minimize human effort and involvement. Although the current developments look promising, the AI sector has a long way to go to achieve what it dreams for: fully-functional human-like machines that can do anything in any environment.